# A Tiny C Unit Test Framework

I’ve got a unit testing framework I’ve been using for a while (for C).  There are plenty of these available in the world, but I happen to like mine.  It consists of a single, short header file.  I once extended it for C++ for a project I did at CERT, but that is lost to history.  In the meantime, I include it here in case anyone wants to use it.

Here’s an example of a complete unit test.

test_test.c

#include "test_frame.h"   START_TEST;   START_ITEM(first); WRITE("Trying... "); WRITE("1"); WRITE("2"); WRITE("3"); WRITELN(" Done!"); VALIDATE("172", "172"); END_ITEM;   START_ITEM(second); WRITELN("Doing stuff."); END_ITEM;   START_ITEM(third); WRITELN("Don't run this item."); FAIL_ITEM("Always fails."); END_ITEM;   // Uncomment this line to disable the next item. // DISABLE; START_ITEM(fourth); int x = 181, y = 182; if (x != y) FAIL("%d != %d", x, y); END_ITEM;   END_TEST;

You just compile the file and run the resulting executable. The exit value is set to 0 on success, and 1 on failure. Messages are written as the test runs.

Assuming test_frame.h (included below) is in the same directory, you can build and run the test as follows.

$gcc test_test.c$ ./a.out

Output (with the DISABLED macros commented out or remove) should look as follows.

Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Starting test
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Starting item first
Trying...  1 2 3  Done!
SUCCESS
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Ending item first
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Starting item second
Doing stuff.
SUCCESS
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Ending item second
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Starting item third
Don't run this item.
FAILED Always fails.
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Ending item third
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Starting item fourth
FAILED 181 != 182
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Ending item fourth
Wed Jul 15 03:19:09 2015: Ending test
FAILED
Child process exited with non-zero status: 1

You might also try gcc -DNOFORK test_test.c.

You can see how it works. You start a test with START_TEST, and end a test with END_TEST. Inside you can have multiple test items. Each item has a START_ITEM(name) and END_ITEM. The name should be a valid symbol. The macro DISABLE disables the next test item (it will be skipped). For example, you can use it in one item to disable the next item, or as in the above example to explicitly disable an item.

You write messages with WRITE(format, arguments...) or WRITELN(format, arguments...). Write a failure message with FAIL(format, arguments...). You fail and skip the rest of the current item with FAIL_ITEM(format, arguments...). This terminates the item, but not the entire test. To terminate the entire test, use FAIL_TEST(format, arguments...). Alternately, you can use IF_FAIL_STOP at any time, and if there have been any failures so far, the test will be terminated. You can guard code blocks with IF_FAIL and IF_NO_FAIL.

There is a simple VALIDATE(string1, string2) macro that generates a failure if the two strings do not match.

Progress is time-stamped, and tests run in their own process space via fork. If you don’t want that, #define NOFORK prior to including the header.

test_frame.h

#ifndef TEST_FRAME_H_ #define TEST_FRAME_H_   /** * @file * Simple test framework. * * To use this, include this header file. You can define a test using * START_TEST and END_TEST. Within a test you can define individual * items with the START_ITEM(name_m) and END_ITEM macros, where * the item name is a symbol used in messages. * * Use FAIL to record failure, and FAIL_ITEM to fail and skip the rest of * the current item. Also useful is IF_FAIL_STOP to halt a test entirely * if there has been a failure. * * @author sprowell@gmail.com * * @verbatim * Copyright (c) 2015, Stacy Prowell * All rights reserved. * * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: * * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, * this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, * this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation * and/or other materials provided with the distribution. * * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" * AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE * LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF * SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS * INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN * CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. * @endverbatim */     // By default every test is run in a separate process. If you don't want // that (because it can be a problem during debugging) then #define NOFORK // before you #include this file.     #ifndef FPRINTF #include <stdio.h> // For fprintf, fflush, stdout. #endif #ifndef NOFORK #include <unistd.h> // For fork. #include <sys/wait.h> // For waitpid. #endif   #include <time.h> // For asctime, localtime. #include <stdbool.h> // For bool. #include <stdlib.h> // For srand. #include <string.h> // For strlen. #include <setjmp.h> // For setjmp, longjmp, jmp_buf.     //====================================================================== // Macros that are used to define how the test framework writes its output. // You might need to modify these if you are on a platform that does not // provide fprintf. //======================================================================   /// Where should test messages go. By default this points to the standard /// output. If you want to change that, #define this before you #include /// this header. If you re-define FPRINTF, you can probably ignore this. #ifndef TEST_OUTPUT # define TEST_OUTPUT stdout #endif   /// What should be used as the end of line. By default this is newline. /// If you want to change that, #define this before you #include this header. #ifndef ENDL__ # define ENDL__ "\n" #endif   /// What function we call to write. You can override this (if you must) by /// #define-ing this before you #include the file. Whatever you use here /// is expected to have the structure of printf(...). #ifndef FPRINTF # define FPRINTF(...) \ fprintf(TEST_OUTPUT, ##__VA_ARGS__); \ fflush(TEST_OUTPUT); #endif     //====================================================================== // Private macros used to implement parts of the test framework. // Do not use these; keep scrolling down for the public macros. //======================================================================   // Create a label for a goto. #define LABEL(x_m) LABEL ## x_m   // Convert the macro argument into a quoted string. Use STRINGIFY instead. #define STRINGIFY_(x_m) #x_m   // Convert the macro argument into a quoted string. #define STRINGIFY(x_m) STRINGIFY_(x_m)   // If an end of line is needed, emit one. #define IF_ENDL \ if (tf_need_endl) { \ FPRINTF(ENDL__); \ tf_need_endl = false; \ tf_need_space = false; \ tf_need_indent = true; \ }   // If a space is needed, emit one. #define IF_SPACE \ if (tf_need_space) { \ FPRINTF(" "); \ tf_need_space = false; \ }   // If indentation is needed, emit it. #define IF_INDENT \ if (tf_need_indent) { \ IF_ENDL; \ FPRINTF(" "); \ tf_need_endl = true; \ tf_need_space = false; \ tf_need_indent = false; \ }   // Emit a timestamped message. #define TS(...) \ { \ IF_ENDL; \ time_t ltime = time(NULL); \ char * time = asctime(localtime(&ltime)); \ time[strlen(time)-1] = '\0'; \ FPRINTF("%s: ", time); \ FPRINTF(__VA_ARGS__); \ FPRINTF(ENDL__); \ tf_need_endl = false; \ tf_need_space = false; \ tf_need_indent = true; \ }   /// A test for core dump. This is not supported everywhere. #ifndef NOFORK # ifdef WCOREDUMP # define CDC__(status_m) \ if (WCOREDUMP(status_m)) { \ TS("Child process generated a core dump."); \ } # endif #endif #ifndef CDC__ # define CDC__(status_m) #endif   //====================================================================== // Public macros to write output during a test. //======================================================================   /** * Write a message. If this is used within a test item, it is indented. * subsequent writes are separated by a single space. Arguments are the * same as printf(...). */ #define WRITE(...) \ { \ IF_INDENT; \ IF_SPACE; \ FPRINTF(__VA_ARGS__); \ tf_need_endl = true; \ tf_need_space = true; \ tf_need_indent = false; \ }   /** * Write a message followed by a newline. If this is used within a test, * it is indented. Subsequent writes are separated by a single space. * Arguments are the same as printf(...). */ #define WRITELN(...) \ { \ IF_INDENT; \ IF_SPACE; \ FPRINTF(__VA_ARGS__); \ FPRINTF(ENDL__); \ tf_need_endl = false; \ tf_need_space = false; \ tf_need_indent = true; \ }   //====================================================================== // Private structural components. //======================================================================   #ifndef NOFORK # define PREFLIGHT \ int pid = fork(); \ if (pid < 0) { \ TS("Fork failed; aborting test."); \ tf_fail_test = true; \ tf_retval = -1; \ } else if (pid != 0) { \ int status = 0; \ waitpid(pid, &status, 0); \ if (WIFSIGNALED(status)) { \ tf_fail_test = true; \ tf_retval = -2; \ fprintf(TEST_OUTPUT, \ "Child process was terminated by the signal: %d%s", \ WTERMSIG(status), ENDL__); \ } else if (WIFEXITED(status)) { \ tf_fail_test = true; \ tf_retval = WEXITSTATUS(status); \ if (tf_retval != 0) { \ fprintf(TEST_OUTPUT, \ "Child process exited with non-zero status: %d%s", \ tf_retval, ENDL__); \ } \ } \ CDC__(status); \ } else { # define POSTFLIGHT \ } #else # define PREFLIGHT # define POSTFLIGHT #endif   //====================================================================== // Structural macros that define a test, or the items in a test. //======================================================================   /** * Macro to set up a test. Use this once at the start of your test. */ #define START_TEST \ static jmp_buf buf; \ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { \ bool tf_need_space = false, tf_need_endl = false, tf_need_indent = false; \ int tf_retval = 0; \ int tf_item_enabled = true; \ bool tf_fail_test = false; \ srand(time(0)); \ TS("Starting test"); \ PREFLIGHT; \ /** * Write a success message and continue the test. This is in addition to the * success message written if a test item or the entire test succeeds, so use * this if you want an extra success message. */ #define SUCCESS \ WRITELN("SUCCESS");   /** * Abort and fail the entire test. The test is immediately stopped. */ #define FAIL_TEST(fmt_m, ...) \ tf_fail_test = true; \ WRITE("FAILED"); \ WRITELN(fmt_m, ##__VA_ARGS__); \ goto end_test;   /** * If failure was detected in a prior step, stop the test now. That is, if a * prior step contained a FAIL_ITEM call, then stop the entire test. */ #define IF_FAIL_STOP \ if (tf_fail_test) { \ goto end_test; \ }   /** * Execute a block of actions if failure has been detected. */ #define IF_FAIL \ if (tf_fail_test)   /** * Execute a block of actions if failure has not been detected. */ #define IF_NO_FAIL \ if (! tf_fail_test)   /** * End the test. You must use this once at the end of your test, after ending * all test items. */ #define END_TEST \ end_test: \ TS("Ending test"); \ if (tf_fail_test) { \ WRITELN("FAILED"); \ return EXIT_FAILURE; \ } \ WRITELN("SUCCESS"); \ tf_retval = 0; \ return EXIT_SUCCESS; \ POSTFLIGHT; \ return tf_retval; \ }   /** * Disable the next test item, if any. Other test items remain enabled. * If you use this within a test item, then the next test item is disabled. * Typically you would use it just prior to a START_ITEM. */ #define DISABLE \ tf_item_enabled = false;   /** * Start an item in the test. Declarations in an item are local to the item. */ #define START_ITEM(item_name_m) \ if (tf_item_enabled) { \ bool tf_fail_item = false; \ tf_need_space = false; \ char * item_name = STRINGIFY(item_name_m); \ TS("Starting item %s", item_name); \ tf_need_space = false; \ tf_need_indent = true; \ tf_need_endl = false; \ if (! setjmp(buf)) {   /** * Fail the current test item. This allows testing to proceed to the next * test item, if any, provided it is not disabled. */ #define FAIL_ITEM(fmt_m, ...) \ tf_fail_test = true; \ tf_fail_item = true; \ WRITE("FAILED"); \ WRITELN(fmt_m, ##__VA_ARGS__); \ longjmp(buf, 1);   /** * Fail the current test item, but continue with the item. This allows * reporting failure for long lists of checks without forcing the checks * to be stopped. */ #define FAIL(fmt_m, ...) \ tf_fail_test = true; \ tf_fail_item = true; \ WRITE("FAILED"); \ WRITELN(fmt_m, ##__VA_ARGS__);   /** * End a test item. Include this at the end of your test item code and * before starting any new item (or ending the test). */ #define END_ITEM \ } \ if (!tf_fail_item) { \ WRITELN("SUCCESS"); \ } \ IF_ENDL; \ tf_need_indent = false; \ TS("Ending item %s", item_name); \ } \ tf_item_enabled = true;   /** * Validate a computed value against the actual (oracle) value. If validation * fails, write a failure message. */ #define VALIDATE(computed_m, actual_m) \ if (strcmp((computed_m), (actual_m))) { \ FAIL("mismtach (%s != %s)", \ (computed_m), (actual_m)); \ }   #endif /*TEST_FRAME_H_*/

stacy

I do whatever it is that I do. Typically that's formal methods in software engineering and security.